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Above: One of the earliest studies of a sea-based launch site conceived by US Navy's Bureau of Ships around 1963.
A rocket ship blasting off from the middle of the ocean into the vastness of space might look like a scene from a James Bond movie or a bizarre sci-fi thriller. Yet, in 1990s, serious people within aerospace industry found the idea pragmatic enough to turn into a business venture. However, the concept of reaching orbit from a floating launch pad goes all the way back to the dawn of the Space Age.
Roots of the program
One of the earliest studies of the sea-based launch site was pioneered by US Navy's Bureau of Ships around 1963. It considered a 17,700-ton, 565-feet vessel, capable of carrying up to three space launchers. Erected on the edge of the ship's stern, the rockets would lift off vertically, carrying satellites to a geostationary orbit. The main rational for building space-launching ship was its ability to be deployed in the equatorial regions of the Earth, where access to the geostationary orbit would be more energy efficient and cheaper comparing to missions originating from Cape Canaveral. (263)
In the USSR, during the 1960s, the development of the Tsyklon family of rockets was accompanied by an innovative effort to automate its launch procedures. The success of the project, prompted the prime contractor of Tsyklon's launch complex -- KBTM design bureau -- to propose a sea-based version of the system. Preliminary studies conducted by KBTM showed that automated launch procedures and a compact pad could be deployed onboard cargo ships, however only after considerable technical problems were solved. In the meantime, prospective geostationary satellites, which would be primary cargo for ocean-based rockets, were emerging much larger than the lifting capacity of the Tsyklon rocket. Subsequently, the concept of the oceangoing launch pad receded to the background for the next decade. Still, KB Yuzhnoe, which developed Tsyklon, TsNIIMash research institute, responsible for advanced problems of rocketry, and KBTM itself, continued low-level studies of technical requirements for a sea-based pad, eyeing future rockets.
In 1975, the same industrial team, which built Tsyklon, embarked upon the development of the most advanced rocket yet -- Zenit. Impressive payload capabilities and the state-of-the-art launch system re-ignited interest in the sea launch concept. (114)
On June 29, 1977, The Commission on Military-Industrial Issues within the Soviet of Ministers of the USSR requested to investigate the concept of sea-based Zenit. On Aug. 19, 1977, Ministry of General Machine building, which oversaw rocket industry in the USSR, authorized a feasibility study of possible deployment of the Zenit rocket at sea.
As a result, by 1979, KB Yuzhnoe, the prime developer of the Zenit rocket, issued a report code-named "Plavuchest" or "Floating." The document evaluated possible regions for the floating launch site and the payload capabilities of Zenit. It also considered a possible workflow in the conditions of the sea, as well as estimated a number of minimum personnel need to support such operations. Issues of guidance, tracking and flight control were also evaluated. (164)
By 1981, Yuzhnoe's subcontractor on launching hardware, KBTM, in cooperation with the industry also completed a detailed study of a sea-based launch pad for Zenit. This work left no doubts in the feasibility of the concept, however KBTM projected that the cost of its development would be comparable to that of a hypothetical 1,000-ton rocket based in Baikonur, while delivering same amount of cargo as Zenit would from the ocean pad. Such conclusion became one of the reasons for another decade-long hibernation of the concept. (114)
The ultimate justification
With the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991, and resulting strained relations with Kazakhstan, Russia feared losing its main space port in Baikonur. Suddenly, most exotic solutions, including air- and sea-based launchers looked attractive.
On December 18, 1991, within days of the Soviet flag descending over Kremlin, the head of NPO Energia Yuri Semenov issued an order to initiate a preliminary study of a sea-based launch pad. Conducted in cooperation with the research institute of the Soviet ship industry -- Soyuzmorniiproekt -- the study eyed various large vessels of the nation's civilian fleet. Between November 1991 and March 1992, NPO Energia looked at the possibility of adapting for sea launch pads its most current and most powerful launch vehicles, including Zenit, Energia-M and even giant Energia. (52)
Besides RKK Energia, a number of other organizations within Russian rocket industry explored the possibility of adapting existing boosters for sea-based space missions. Makeev design bureau, famous for its nuclear tipped missiles based on Soviet submarines, proposed a sea-based complex called Priboi. This exotic concept included ejecting the rocket from the ship into the open water in horizontal position. A special ballast cistern on the tail of the rocket would then be filled with the water, swinging a semi-submerged rocket into the vertical position. A remotely controlled blastoff would follow with no need for launch equipment! (207)
Despite many ideas, in the post-Soviet economic collapse, Russian government had little chance of finding needed cash for the development of any of these projects. However, unlike the Soviet period, Russian rocketeers could now look for investors abroad.
In March 1993, the head of NPO Energia, Yuri Semenov, established contact with the American aerospace giant Boeing. First discussions of the project apparently took place during the summer of the same year, ultimately leading to the idea of an international joint venture, which would offer its service to commercial customers. In addition to maximizing the payload of the rocket flying from the Equatorial regions, movable launch facility would offer great flexibility for potential customers to reach any conceivable orbit, while always flying over remote regions of the ocean.
NPO Energia officials also "discovered" the Odyssey oil-rig platform located at the Vyborg shipyard as a potential candidate for "reincarnation" into the ocean-going launch pad. To push the concept, NPO Energia published a small booklet advertising the possibility of launching Energia-M rocket from the sea. In the summer of 1993, the KBTM design bureau, specialized in launch facilities received an invitation to join the study. The company's engineers found NPO Energia's concept remarkably similar to their own project circa 1981. However, KBTM specialists also noticed significant differences: a considerably smaller floating platform and the launch pad placed on its stern, instead of a central location. Such layout generated concern about distribution of loads across the platform. (114)
On November 25, 1993, in the city of Turku, Finland, NPO Energia, Boeing and Norwegian company Kvaerner Maritime, which owned Odyssey, singed an agreement on the development of the sea-based complex. Boeing promised to take responsibility for organizational and marketing side of the project, while Kvaerner would outfit the platform for its new role. (52)
After the assessment of potential vehicles, which would be best suited for flying from the platform, the Zenit rocket ended up to be an undisputed winner. It was deemed best-suited for the ocean launch pad thanks to its non-toxic propellant and highly automated pre-launch processing. As a result, in February 1994, Zenit manufacturer -- KB Yuzhnoe of Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine -- joined the company, bringing along a band of its traditional subcontractors.
Unlike the consensus on the rocket, the choice of the launch platform led to a major quarrel, apparently for the first (but not last) time threatening the very existence of the joint venture. While Russians and Norwegians voted for a converted oil rig platform, Boeing argued for a supertanker. Ultimately, the conditions, which required the installation of all rocket-related hardware within Russian ports gave the platform an advantage. (52)
In May 1994, in Baikonur, RKK Energia, NPO Yuzhnoe, Boeing and Kvaerner signed a memorandum of agreement on the creation of the Sea Launch joint venture. In November 1994, during a meeting in the city of Oslo, Norway, all partners agreed on the basic concept of the complex and signed yet another cooperative agreement.
How Sea Launch works: Look mom, no hands!
The Sea Launch system emerged as a two-vessel flotilla, including an assembly and command ship, which would carry the rocket to the launch area around the Equator and the launch platform itself.
Upon arriving to the right spot in the ocean, the rocket would be transferred from the command ship to the platform in horizontal position with the help of a special ramp. Then, it would be lifted to the upper deck of the platform into a special hangar. After the command ship moved to a safe distance from the platform and all personnel evacuated from the facility, remotely controlled mechanisms would bring the rocket to the launch pad, erect it into vertical position and attach all umbilical connectors. Fully automated systems would then fuel the rocket, conduct final checks, maintain necessary climate control and, ultimately, launch the vehicle. In case of a scrub, the process could be conducted in reverse, still without direct human involvement.
The Zenit rocket would blast off, and, in most missions, would head East along the Equator. With mission accomplished, both vessels would then return to the home port of Long Beach, California, for servicing and preparation for the next launch.
Unlike most Russian orbital launches controlled from a military center in Krasnoznamensk, Sea Launch missions would be monitored from the civilian Mission Control Center in Korolev, run by TsNIIMash research institute. The center is world-known for its critical role in the Mir space station and International Space Station programs.
Challenges of the project
The creation of the Sea Launch complex would be plagued with endless technical, political and financial problems, not unlike those experienced by many global innovative economic and technological initiatives attempted at the end of the Cold War.
Soon after the development of Sea Launch had taken off, its main investors discovered that the projected cost of the whole enterprise had been grossly underestimated. (At the end of the 1990s, the price tag of the Sea Launch project was estimated at $950 million.) In the effort to control the cost, Boeing tried to consolidate power within the Sea Launch company, which met resistance of Russian and Ukrainian partners. High cost of the project also prompted Russia to seek loans of the World Bank, which after some wrangling did respond positively in 1997, providing around $100 million.
To complicate matters further, the work on Sea Launch coincided with the merger of Boeing and McDonnell Douglas in 1996. In the wake of this consolidation, Boeing found itself responsible for America's workhorse rockets in the Delta family. As a result, Boeing would essentially compete against itself, when it worked to win new customers for Sea Launch.
In the meantime, inside former USSR, the rocket industry had to overcome enormous bureaucratic hurdles and military secrecy, in order to obtain needed government authorizations and export licenses to ship sensitive rocket technology overseas. (164)
Within the Russian rocket industry, the attitude toward Sea Launch was not unanimous either. A critical role in the project had to be delegated to Moscow-based KBTM, which developed sophisticated ground hardware for the Zenit rocket. However, the management of the company had mixed feelings about Sea Launch.
Until the very completion of the project in 1999, RKK Energia struggled to arrange the use of military-controlled ground tracking stations on the Russian territory, on which Mission Control in Korolev had to rely upon in monitoring orbital mission of the Block DM upper stage.
Major development milestones
A successful resolution of main technical issues related to the concept by March 1995, paved the way to the creation of the Sea Launch joint venture, which would take the project from concept to development. Upon issuing in April 1995 a conceptual design of the Zenit-3SL rocket for the Sea Launch complex, on May 5, 1995, Sea Launch venture was officially formed in the city of Seattle, Wa, the home of the Boeing company. (98)
In December 1995, a major communications satellite developer -- the Hughes company --placed the first order with Sea Launch for an orbital mission. At the same time, the construction of the command and control ship commenced at the shipyard of the Kvaerner-Govan company in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. Initial modifications of the Odyssey platform would be conducted at the shipyard in the city of Stavanger, Norway.
In a high-tech version of recycling, Sea Launch arranged with Russian and Kazakh governments the use of some crucial hardware from the Energia-Buran program. Most importantly, the RD-170 engines common for the Zenit rocket and the first stage of the Energia rocket, had been removed from the "dead-on-arrival" Energia boosters and re-used for the Zenit-3SL rockets. (164)
In July 1996, Hughes agreed to fly three more missions from the Sea Launch platform, while Space Systems/Loral ordered five launches. As of beginning of 1996, the first launch was scheduled for the beginning of 1998. At the time, Sea Launch secured contracts worth more than a billion dollars. (52) On Aug. 8, 1996, a groundbreaking ceremony was held for the home port of the Sea Launch project in Long Beach, California.
In the fall of 1996, Moscow-based KBTM design bureau received a contract from Sea Launch on ground-support equipment. Previously, the company was asked to supply an umbilical boom for cables, automatic docking interface of the launch pad and a set of processing and handling hardware for the assembly and command ship. All this technology would derive from existing hardware at the Zenit launch complex in Baikonur. However eventually KBTM's role grew to encompass all launch and processing hardware for the Sea Launch complex, for the exception of checkout equipment for the Block DM-SL upper stage.
On May 30, 1997, the Odyssey platform arrived to the Russian port of Vyborg, after the completion of a first round of upgrades in Norway. Now Russian contractors could start installing rocket-related hardware. This work would not be completed until April-May 1998.
On September 22, 1997, Sea Launch command and control ship was christened at its shipyard in Glasgow, England. It arrived to St. Petersburg to be outfitted with rocket-related equipment on Dec. 27, 1997. Due to numerous technical problems, it was one month later than the most recent schedule called for and almost a year behind the original schedule.
On April 25, 1998, Odyssey was powered up for the first time from its operational electric system.
Arduous journey to the US
On May 20, 1998, the first rocket stage -- the upper stage DM-SL No. 1TL -- was loaded onboard Sea Launch Commander in the port of St. Petersburg. The Zenit rocket was also brought onboard. On June 6 and 10, the second Block DM and the second Zenit rocket had arrived to St Petersburg and were loaded onboard the ship.
On June 12, 1998, Sea Launch Commander left St. Petersburg, Russia, heading to its permanent home base in Long Beach, California. Inside, it carried the first two Sea Launch vehicles. On June 20 or 22, it was followed by the Odyssey platform. The Sea Launch commander could reach the West Coast of the United States, by crossing the Atlantic Ocean and Panama Canal, while the Odyssey had to circumnavigate the globe via Suez Canal, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
During the journey, a water pipeline onboard Sea Launch commander burst, spewing water on the precious Block DM upper stage, requiring additional tests. As the ship was approaching the Panama Canal, it was discovered that Sea Launch had no license for the import of kerosene into the US, which the vessel carried for the tests of the rocket fueling system. As a result, 17 tons of kerosene had to be unloaded onboard a tanker.
In the meantime, the Odyssey platform survived its own "adventures" on the way to the US. During a storm in the Bay of Biscay, a crane in the hangar of the platform collapsed onto the state-of-the-art rocket erector. On July 16-26, 1998, Russian engineers examined the damage in the port of Gibraltar. Another stop for repairs was made in Singapore. It would ultimately take half a million dollars and four months to replace and repair damaged hardware. Living up to its name, Odyssey finally made it to its home port in California on October 4, 1998.
Although biggest technical problems were now resolved, Sea Launch was suddenly hit with another disaster, this time bureaucratic. On July 27, 1998, State Department suspended Technical Assistance Agreement, TAA, which allowed Boeing's involvement in the development phase of the project. The suspension was a result of more than 200 violations of the technology transfer procedures admitted by Boeing representatives. In turn, the World Bank suspended its part of funding of the Sea Launch project. After paying a 10-million dollar fine for alleged violations, and a three-month delay in practically all Sea Launch operations in Long Beach, all parties signed amended agreement, lifting restrictions on future work. The normal business was resumed on Oct. 21, 1998. In the middle of November, Sea Launch and RKK Energia signed a contract for the conclusion of autonomous and the continuation of general testing of the complex. The first test launch was scheduled for March 14, 1999.
Between Nov. 5 and 14, 1998, both Sea Launch vessels spent at sea, testing various systems. On Dec. 3, 1998, the Block DM-SL and the Zenit-2S rocket were mated together for the first time to form Zenit-3SL of the Sea Launch complex.
In August 1998, Sea Launch made a decision to precede the first mission with commercial payload -- the Galaxy-XI satellite -- by a test launch carrying a dummy payload. On Dec. 28, 1998, the first payload fairing built by Boeing was shipped from the home port to the command and assembly ship. On Dec. 31, 1998, the payload section and the rocket were mated for the first mission.
On Jan. 23, 1999, the first Zenit-3SL rocket was for the first time erected on the launch platform during so-called dry tests in the port of Long Beach. In March 1999, the Zenit-3SL rocket flew its first test mission from the Sea Launch platform, successfully delivering a demo satellite into orbit.
Hit hard by the January 2007 accident and following exodus of its customers, the Sea Launch company filed for bankruptcy protection on June 22, 2009. The company listed assets of up to $500 million against liabilities exceeding $1 billion. In its official press-release, Sea launch said it would continue operations as usual, while undergoing reorganization.
Sea Launch then spent several years emerging from bankruptcy under ownership of RKK Energia in Russia and new headquarters in Bern, Switzerland. Missions from the ocean-based platform resumed in 2008, however after 10 successful launches, on Jan. 31, 2013, another Zenit plunged into the ocean shortly after liftoff from its floating platform. Smoke hardly cleared from the ill-fated launch, as reports surfaced in Russia that the leadership at RKK Energia had asked the government to take over the troubled Sea Launch venture. According to Izvestiya daily, the head of RKK Energia Vitaly Lopota made an offer to this effect to Vice Prime-Minister Dmitry Rogozin during his visit to the company's campus in Korolev on Jan. 15, 2013, i.e. even before the fateful accident. The Russian government was yet to respond, Izvestiya wrote on Feb. 4, 2013.
At the time, Sea Launch reportedly owed to creditors $530 million, even though RKK Energia put this number at $300 million. According to Nezavsimya Gazeta, Sea Launch lost around $100 million in 2011. Yet, RKK Energia claimed that customers had booked 12 future launches from Sea Launch and more missions had been negotiated but it did not name those customers. According to its own estimates, Sea Launch needed to perform at least four launches a year to break even, however, in reality, it could not win more than two or three customers a year.
In December 2012, RKK Energia tried and failed to get a $200-million credit from the Russian Sberbank. Still, Lopota argued that the Russian government could support the project by taking over its liabilities and also shifting some of the federal missions to Sea Launch. The latter move was justified by continuing dispute between Russia and Kazakhstan over the use of Baikonur. Lopota argued that Russia would get a launch site on the Equator for a "relatively small money" but did not say whether a losing-money venture under control of his corporation had any chance of becoming profitable when owned by the Russian government.
Apparently as a backup plan, Lopota also contemplated selling Sea Launch to foreign entities, naming China, Australia, US and Ukraine as interested parties. In particular, he described Lockheed Martin's Atlas rocket as a "perfect fit" for the Sea Launch platform. Lopota did not explain the rational behind Lockheed Martin's potential purchase of Sea Launch. In the past few years, the company withdrew from marketing Russian Proton rockets within the International Launch Service, ILS, venture, the main competitor to Sea Launch. Around the same time, Boeing, an original majority stake holder in Sea Launch, also abandoned the venture. Moreover, Boeing reportedly asked Sea Launch to pay off nearly $500 million share out of $1.5 billion of investments into the project since its inception. RKK Energia apparently paid only $155 million, leading to a lawsuit by Boeing alledging RKK Energia owed it $222.3 million and KB Yuzhnoe another 133.4 million. Paying all creditors, combined with delays in restructuring of the company led to further financial damage to the Sea Launch venture.
In the effort to cut costs, RKK Energia wrestled control over NPO Energomash producing RD-170/171 engines, which power the first stage of the Zenit rocket. As a result, it was able to force NPO Energomash to reduce the price for each engine from $16 to $10 million, bringing the legendary propulsion company toward the brink of bankruptcy. RKK Energia's own debt was also continuing mounting and according to Nezavisimaya Gazeta had essentially been a disguised bankruptcy for several years. (631)
Shares of original investors into the Sea Launch venture (as of 2000):
Shares of investors into the Sea Launch venture (as of 2010):
Zenit 3 payload capabilities:
Sea Launch industrial team:
This page is maintained by Anatoly Zak
Last update: February 4, 2013
A concept by the KBTM design bureau considering a single command and transport ship. Credit: KBTM
A concept by the KBTM design bureau considering a floating semi-submerged platform. Credit: KBTM
A concept by the KBTM design bureau considering a stationary self-lifting platform. Credit: KBTM
A concept by the KBTM design bureau considering a dual-body ship launcher. Credit: KBTM
A concept by the KBTM design bureau considering a semi-submerged self-propelled platform. Credit: KBTM
During the 1990s, RKK Energia evaluated the possibility of building a second sea-based launch pad, this time for the Soyuz-2 rocket. Credit: RKK Energia
The Zenit-3SL rocket launches Telstar 18 on June 28, 2004. Credit: Boeing
The Zenit-3SL rocket launches Koreasat 5 on Aug. 22, 2006. Credit: Sea Launch
The Zenit rocket with the NSS-8 comsat explodes on the Sea Launch pad on Jan. 30, 2007. Credit: Sea Launch