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Buran

Buran


Energia-M

Energia-M


Pads

Energia-Buran launch facilities


Yenisei-5

Yenisei-5


RD-170

RD-170 engine


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RD-0120 engine


 

 

 

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Energia

Above: A fully assembled Energia rocket with a flight-worthy Buran orbiter (in background) and components of its first stage (in foreground) were mothballed in Baikonur, until the roof collapse of the assembly building destroyed this unique hardware.


Different versions of the Energia rocket:

Type
Manufacturer name
US designation
Sheldon designation
Developer
Payloads
Vulkan
-
-
-
NPO Energia
-
Energia
11K25
SL-17/18
K/L
NPO Energia
Buran, Polus
Groza
RLA-125
       
Energia-M
Neitron
-
-
NPO Energia
-
Energia-2
-
-
-
NPO Energia
-

Base Energia rocket (two booster stages) tech dossier:

Number of stages
2
Length of the vehicle

58.765 meters

Diameter
Up to 20 meters
Weight (fueled)
2,400 tons
First launch 1987
Launch sites Baikonur (three pads: Site 110, 250)
Stage 1, Block A, 11S25 Four strap-on boosters
Fuel
Kerosene
Oxidizer Liquid oxygen
Stage 1 fuel weight

340 tons (on each of four boosters)

Stage 1 booster dry weight

25 tons (on each of four boosters)

Stage 1 booster length

40 meters

Stage 1 booster diameter 3.9 meters
Stage 1 burn time 156 seconds from takeoff
1st stage booster propulsion

1 (one) four-chamber RD-170 engine (on each of four boosters)

Stage 2, Block Ts Central (core stage)
Fuel
Liquid hydrogen
Oxidizer Liquid oxygen
Stage 2 fuel weight

797 tons

Stage 2 dry weight

50 tons

Stage 2 length

59 meters

Stage 2 diameter 7.750 meters
Stage 2 burn time 470 seconds from takeoff
2nd stage propulsion

4 one-chamber RD-0120 (11D122) engines

Launch system

ground-based: (11P825)

Payload from Baikonur
  • 95-100 tons to 51-degree LEO
  • 18 tons to geostationary orbit
  • 32 tons to the lunar transfer
  • 28 tons to Venus and Mars

Energia development cooperation:

Element Developer Chief-designer Location
Overall design
NPO Energia
V. Glushko
Podlipki (Korolev)
1st stage developement
KB Yuzhnoe
Utkin
Dnepropetrovsk
2nd (core) stage production
Progress
-
Kuibyshev (Samara)
Propulsion system (1st stage)
OKB-456
V. Glushko
Moscow
Propulsion system (2nd stage)
KBKhA
Kosberg
Voronezh

Energia development chronology:

1976 Feb. 17: Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Soviet of Ministers of the USSR issued a combined decree #132-51, officially launching the development of the Energia-Buran system. (52)

1976 Dec. 12: The Chief Designer at NPO Energia approves the preliminary design concept of the Energia-Buran system.

1976 Dec. 18: The Military Industrial Commission of the Soviet of Ministers of the USSR finalised the industrial team involved in Energia-Buran development.

1977 July: Concil of Chief Designers and Scientific-Technical Council of the Ministry of the General Mashine Building (NTS MOM) approved the addendum to the prelimanry design of the Energia-Buran system.

1977 Nov. 21: The Soviet government issued a decree detailing major stages and activities in the development of the Energia-Buran system.

1978 March: The industry completed the techninical project for the Energia-Buran development.

1979: A full-scale mockup, designated EUK13, of the Energia rocket is was assembled in the processing building at Site 112 in Baikonur. It included a core stage, a strap-on booster stage and an interface launching platform.

1982 January: Minister of General Mashine Building appointed B. I. Gubanov as a head of Energia-Buran development.

1982 Jan. 6: The first test flight of the VM-T aircraft carrying Energia rocket's hydrogen tank externally.

1982 December: The processing personell in Baikonur conducted experimental assembly of the test version of the Energia rocket designated 4M.

1987 May 15, 21:30 Moscow Time: The first Energia super booster (Number 6SL) is launched from Site-250 in Baikonur carrying a Polyus military payload. The rocket performed flawlessly, however, Polyus orbital maneuvering system fired in the opposite direction due to the control system problem causing the payload to fall in the ocean.

1988 November 15, 06:00:02 Moscow Time: The Energia super booster carrying unmanned Buran reusable shuttle blasted off from Baikonur. 206 minutes or two orbits later, the Buran automatically landed at the Yubileiniy airfield at Site 251 in Baikonur.

1993: The Energia project is discontinued with five vehicles still available, including two at the launch site and remaining at TsSKB Progress in Samara.

2002: Components of the Energia rocket are destroyed in the roof collapse in Baikonur.

 

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Next chapter: Energia-M rocket

Page author: Anatoly Zak; Last update: September 4, 2014

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PICTURE GALLERY

The Energia rocket with the Polus "battle station" is being loaded on its transporter-erector in preparation for the launch in May 1987. Copyright © 2001 RussianSpaceWeb.com


The Energia rocket with the Polus is being installed on the launch pad at Site 250 in preparation for the launch in May 1987. Copyright © 2001 RussianSpaceWeb.com


A fully-assembled Energia booster with the Buran reusable spacecraft sits mothballed in the assembly building Number 112 in Baikonur. Copyright © 2001 Anatoly Zak


View of the tail section of the Energia's core stage with four main engines. Copyright © 2001 by Anatoly Zak


A fully-assembled Energia-Buran system is rolled out from the assembly building integrated with a platform, which provides all interfaces between the vehicle and the launch complex. Copyright © 2000 Anatoly Zak


The main engines of the Energia's core stage. Four engines were powering the Energia rocket. A single engine would be sued in Energia-M version of the vehicle. Copyright © 2000 Anatoly Zak


The RD-170 engine powered the first stage of the Energia rocket. Click to enlarge: 300 by 400 pixels / 56K Copyright © 2005 Anatoly Zak


A scale model of VM-T Atlant aircraft designed to transport the elements of the Energia-Buran system. The aircraft was converted from Myasishev's 3M startegic bomber. In shown configuration the aircraft carries hydrogen tank of the Energia's core stage. Copyright © 2001 Anatoly Zak