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Proton

Many faces of Proton: A collage of scale models representing proposed (far left and far right) and flown versions of the Proton rocket.


 

Book
DEVELOPMENT HISTORY

 
Origin

Before UR-500 there was A-600

Although Proton is one of the most recognizable Russian rockets today, its early origins remain largely obscured. Like many other Russian space launchers, Proton was conceived as a military ballistic missile. Fortunately, it only flew missions to deliver spacecraft into orbit, not warheads to their targets.

development

NEW: Nov. 10: Birth of Proton: The iconic rocket that almost wasn't

In the second half of 1961, engineers at Vladimir Chelomei's OKB-52 design bureau conceived of a 500-ton, two-stage rocket designated 8K82. To ensure military support for the project, the huge vehicle was promised to carry a giant nuclear warhead and to be deployed in underground silos.

L1

Circumlunar mission (Coming soon!)

In 1965, after barely reaching launch pad, Proton was given a job of launching two cosmonauts on a trip around the Moon. The project had a single political goal of denying the US the most ambitious achievement in space short of the actual landing on the lunar surface.

history

Development and launch history

Proton entered the 21st century as a commercial workhorse of the Russian space program. After launching the service module of the International Space Station in 2000, the four-stage version of Proton launched numerous satellites for the Russian government and foreign customers.

TECHNOLOGY
Stage 1

Stage I: This is all one thing!

The design of the first stage had forever defined Proton's unique architecture. No other launch vehicle before or after it had the same design and when its architecture started emerging from behind the Iron Curtain, it became a great source of mystery and confusion.

 
stage 2

Stage II

The second stage of the Proton rocket equipped with four engines has a traditional form of a cylinder. After four test launches of Proton's original version in 1965 and 1966, the second stage was stretched and it kept its new dimensions ever since.

Stage 3

Stage III

The third stage was added to the Proton rocket after four launches of its two-stage version in 1965 and 1966. It has remained a part of the historic launch vehicle ever since. In most missions today, it has a job of sending its payload on a ballistic trajectory, just shy of an orbital velocity.

D

Stage IV: Block D

For missions beyond initial low orbits, Proton was equipped with a Block D upper stage that was initially developed for the N1 Moon rocket. On Proton, Block D acted as the fourth stage, sending spacecraft toward the Moon, Mars, Venus and to the geostationary orbit.

Briz-M

Briz-M upper stage

At the turn of the 21st century, Proton was upgraded with a new fourth stage called Briz-M. It takes much less space onboard the launch vehicle compared to Block D upper stage, leaving the freed volume for cargo. As a result, the new payload shroud topping the rocket could offer 2.5 times more volume.

RD-253

RD-253 engine

The original first stage of the Proton rocket was propelled by six RD-253 engines developed at OKB-456 design bureau (now NPO Energomash) in Moscow and led by Valentin Glushko. Each engine had a thrust on the ground of 150 tons. Like engines on two upper stages of the Proton rocket, RD-253 burned highly toxic unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide as an oxidizer.

Operations

Launch facilities in Baikonur

A total of four launch pads and extensive support infrastructure was built in Baikonur for the Proton launcher. Baikonur Cosmodrome is the only site from where the Proton can be launched. The original two pads at Site 81 were followed by two additional pads at Site 200. All of them were located on the "left flank" of the center that became informally known as Proton city.

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