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Object D project
The Object D was conceived as a multi-functional science laboratory with an ambitious array of instruments onboard. It was expected to measure density and ion composition of the atmosphere, to study solar radiation, magnetic field and cosmic rays. The satellite promised practical experience, which could later help in the development of attitude control systems for future spacecraft. Also, the mission would provide engineering data on the thermal regime onboard the satellite, on the interaction of the spacecraft with the upper atmosphere, its movement relative to the center of gravity.
Object D: Finally a decision
A decree of the Soviet of Ministers No. 149-88ss formally authorizing the development of an artificial satellite was approved on January 30, 1956. It called for the development of a satellite, without an attitude control system and designated Object D, during 1957-1958. (Designations "A", "B" and "V" based on letters at the beginning of the Russian alphabet were reserved for various configurations of warheads proposed for the R-7 ICBM.)
The spacecraft's mass was limited to 1,000-1,400 kilograms to match the capabilities of the R-7 ballistic missile. A total mass of scientific equipment onboard the satellite could reach up to 200-300 kilograms and the launch date was set for 1957. (248)(52)(126) Unlike wording in a draft of the decree, the launch in the first half of 1957 was no longer specified.
The document delegated responsibilities for various aspects of the project to following institutions:
The decree assigned the Soviet Academy of Sciences to use Object D for studying following disciplines:
The decree authorized the use of hardware and components developed for "other articles," (likely meaning nuclear warheads) in the Object D project in order to save time and resources, as long as it would not interfere with the work on the original vehicles.
In addition to the full-scale development and manufacturing of Object D, the same decree also authorized preliminary studies into Object OD, where "O" stood for "orientiruemy" meaning capable of the attitude control. Technical requirements for the OD vehicle had be jointly formulated by the Ministries of Defense Industry, by the Ministry of Defense and by the Academy of Sciences. This project formed a foundation for the development of the vehicle, that could be returned from orbit, thus paving the way to the first manned spacecraft.
The January 30 decree also retained the previous plan to develop a small satellite for low-cost scientific research -- Object MPS, during 1956-1958. The document requested to submit proposals on the issue to the Soviet of Ministers within two months. (509)
On February 27, 1956, just days after exposing a bloody legacy of Stalin's crimes at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party, Khrushchev made a long-delayed visit to Korolev's OKB-1 in Podlipki, near Moscow. With awe and amazement but still without a full realization of it, the Soviet leader and his entourage saw the coming of the Space Age in the form of a full-scale mockup of the enormous R-7 rocket. When Korolev reminded Khrushchev that with this new giant rocket, America would no longer be unreachable for the Soviet nuclear weapons, the Soviet leader "simply beamed." It was the perfect moment for Korolev to introduce a satellite. Khrushchev's son Sergei described the moment in his memoirs:
Korolev then went through the usual routine about Americans racing feverishly toward their own satellite launch and the importance for the Soviet Union of being first at that and the relative easiness and low price of achieving the victory in this race. As usual, to Khrushchev and his cohorts, the military goals of the rocket dwarfed the idea of the satellite, in its significance. Yet, Khrushchev gave Korolev his blessing. (87)
First technical requirements for the satellite were issued in February 1956 (247) and on June 14, Korolev finalized a list of modifications for the R-7 rocket needed to be implemented in order for it to carry Object D.
The preliminary design of the Object-D satellite was completed in July 1956. Apparently, at the time, the operational life span of the spacecraft was not expected to exceed 7-10 days, even though it was to stay in orbit from two to 12 weeks. The main limitation on the "life" of scientific instruments was imposed by the capabilities of the ground control network and the bulky, power-hungry telemetry system borrowed from the R-7 rocket. Chemical batteries onboard Sputnik-3 were designed to provide power for three weeks. (270)
According to the original design, a pair of spring-loaded booms with a length of 12 and 15 meters would deploy antenna reflectors on the satellite, immediately after its separation from the launch vehicle. They were designed to help tracking the spacecraft in orbit. At the time, a mass of the satellite was estimated at 570 kilograms, with 200-300 kilograms available as a reserve. As many as three versions of the satellite were drafted for various contingencies. (84)
The body exterior of the spacecraft would be made of aluminum alloy, while two internal magnesium frames would carry service systems and internal instruments. (2)
The spacecraft would have a full complement of hardware for its interaction with ground control. It included avionics to generate and transmit telemetry, a Fakel receiver and transmitter, providing tracking signals to the Binokl-D radar stations on the ground, a transmitter for the Irtysh-D trajectory measurement stations and hardware for the MRV-2M command system. (270) It would enable ground control to turn on and off scientific instruments and service systems onboard the satellite.
At its base, the satellite featured a belt of 16 blinds powered by four electric drives and covering a snake-like radiator. Blinds would open and close depending on readings from onboard temperature sensors. Additional thermal control could be achieved by varying rates of cooling gas flow. (2)
Four small solar panels were installed on top of the satellite, another four on its sides and one was attached to the aft bulkhead.
Sputnik-3 at a glance:
On September 14, 1956, Keldysh invited Korolev to a meeting of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences, discussing the satellite program. The report made by Keldysh revealed a number of milestones in the future space exploration program:
Keldysh did promise to deliver specifications for the science payloads of the satellite, which had been originally scheduled to be completed in August 1956. The original development schedule also called for the Academy of Sciences to supply mockups of the scientific instruments for the installation on the prototype of the satellite in October 1956. Now, Keldysh promised to deliver all prototypes in November 1956, despite clear signs of the program's lagging schedule. (18)
Reorganizing for space
Early work on Object D coincided with the internal reorganization of Korolev's OKB-1 during August and September 1956. Among other structural changes, Department 9 responsible for satellite development was formed within the design bureau. (71)
Korolev made sure that Mikhail Tikhonravov, the chief "ideologist" of the satellite project and his personal friend, played a key role in the upcoming development of the spacecraft. On Oct. 3, 1956, Korolev requested Ustinov to transfer Tikhonravov to OKB-1 to work at Department 9. On Dec. 27, 1956, the same request went to Marshall of Artillery Mitrofan Nedelin. (247, 248) It was eventually approved. Department 9 was led by S. S. Kryukov with Tikhonravov as a scientific consultant. The group was put in charge of the development of the preliminary design of the future satellite. According to Golovanov, as of Nov. 1, 1956, Tikhonravov officially worked for OKB-1. (18)
At the end of September 1957, Korolev delivered a report on the state of the satellite project to the Scientific and Technical Council of the NII-88 research institute, which just formally separated from his OKB-1 design bureau. The key thesis of the document was a provision for the development of three rather than one variations of scientific satellites with various scientific packages. NII-88 approved Korolev's plan. (18)
Object D later known as Sputnik-3. Note differences on two sides of the spacecraft. Copyright © 2001-2011 Anatoly Zak
Sputnik-3, view from the back. Click to enlarge. Copyright © 2001 Anatoly Zak
Scale model of Sputnik-3. Click to enlarge. Copyright © 2007 Anatoly Zak
Internal hardware of Sputnik-3. Copyright © 2011 Anatoly Zak
A test version of the avionics box and the attitude sensor for an instrument designed to measure the distribution of the Earth's magnetic field onboard the Third Artificial Satellite. Copyright © 2009 Anatoly Zak