Russia builds Arctic satellite network
Russia is developing a unique satellite network dedicated to monitoring of the Arctic. With its territory stretching thousands of kilometers along the Arctic Ocean, Russian Federation faces many challenges when trying to balance the economic development and the environmental protection of these vast regions. In particular, traditional communications and weather-forecasting satellites "hanging" over the Equator are ill-suited for serving high-latitude areas of the globe.
Arktika-M satellite at a glance:
Origin of the Arktika concept
To focus latest space capabilities on this crucial, yet hard-to-reach Arctic region, Russian engineers proposed a multi-purpose constellation dubbed Arktika (Arctic). The Arktika network could perform a variety of remote-sensing tasks, such as monitoring of environmental conditions, and also provide reliable communications and navigation across this inhospitable region.
The Arktika project was apparently first discussed at the governmental level at the end of 2007 and first publications about the concept appeared in 2008. It attracted a wider attention in April 2010, as then Prime-Minister Vladimir Putin visited the Franz Josef Land archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. At the time, the head of Roskosmos Anatoly Perminov said that the agency would spend 68 billion rubles ($2.3 billion) on the Arktika constellation. The agency reportedly hoped to raise up to a half of required funds from private investors, including foreign partners. In addition to Roskosmos, the Russian meteorological agency, Rosgidromet, reportedly promised its support for the project.
The majority of Arktika satellites would be launched by Soyuz-2-1b rockets into highly elliptical orbits with most of their orbital path in view of the northern hemisphere. As a result, at least one of the satellites would always be present above the horizon to provide communications, meteorological data and other services over the Arctic. The constellation would be divided into four sub-systems: Arktika-M, -MS1, -MS2 and Arktika-R satellites.
A pair of Arktika-M satellites fully funded from the Russian space budget would be focused on meteorology and emergency communications. Each spacecraft will carry a multi-spectral imager, known as MSU-GSM, along with transmitters for meteorological and rescue systems. An apogee (highest point) of their orbit would be 40,000 kilometers above the Earth surface and a perigee 1,000 kilometers. Such orbital parameters would enable frequent overflies of the polar regions with practically uninterrupted view of the northern hemisphere. In contrast, most civilian meteorological satellites deployed in the geostationary orbit can see little or no useful details beyond the 60th parallel, due to curvature of the Earth, while the satellites in traditional polar orbits do not have continuous view of all polar regions.
As of 2008, the first Arktika-M was expected to fly in 2013. (299) However by December 2010, the launch of the first pair slipped to 2014. (442) Around the same time, the launch of Arktika-M No. 3 was planned in 2018 and No. 4 in 2019. (411)
A trio of Arktika-MS1 satellites would comprise a commercial segment whose development was delegated to OOO Gazprom Kosmicheskie Sistemy. MS1 satellites would be providing mobile communications for the Polyarnaya Zvezda (Polar Star) network.
In the meantime, Arktika-MS2 would make up a state-owned segment also consisting of three satellites. These spacecraft would be intended for governmental communications, air-traffic control and for the relay of navigational signals for the American GPS and Russian GLONASS systems. (442)
Arktika-MS satellites would be deployed in orbits with an inclination 63 degrees toward the Equator and an apogee of around 50,000 kilometers, requiring 24 hours to complete each revolution around the Earth.
The final pair of Arktika satellites, dubbed Arktika-R, was to be deployed in the Sun-synchronous orbit extending from the North Pole to the South Pole of the planet at an inclination of 98 degrees toward the Equator and an altitude from 550 to 750 kilometers. Carrying all-weather imaging radar as its main instrument, these spacecraft would be dedicated to remote-sensing tasks, such as the search for natural resources and measuring of ice thickness, water temperatures and pollution.
Arktika-R was to carry a multi-mode radar antenna emitting signal at a frequency from 9.5 to 9.8 GHz. Radar's field of view would cover a swath of no less than 450 kilometers in the so-called "detailed" mode of operation and 600 kilometers in an "overview" mode. The highest image resolution was promised to reach one meter.
Privately funded Arktika-R satellites would support the remote-sensing system known as Smotr (Review).
Architecture of the Arktika system. Credit: NPO Lavochkin
Each sub-system of the Arktika network was to have its own network of ground stations. Five main ground centers in Moscow, Novosibirsk, Khabarovsk, Tiksi and Barenzsburg will be supplemented by more than 100 regional ground stations across the Russian Federation to receive and process data from Arktika satellites.
The information from the satellites was to be used by the nation's key agencies, including the Ministry of Defense, Emergency Ministry, Transport Ministry, Ministry of Mineral Resources and Ecology and by many others. Russia also promised to share the data with 190 countries-members of the World Meteorological Organization, WMO. (668)
In February 2013, the head of NPO Lavochkin told the Interfax news agency that Western countries had been interested in the project, particularly there was a recent meeting with a team from Finland.
In February 2021, ISS Reshetnev announced that its ground station in Zheleznogorsk in Western Siberia would be used for monitoring of the systems and relaying of commands aboard the Arktika-M satellite.
In 2012, Roskosmos assigned NPO Lavochkin to build Arktika satellites. The agency allocated 5.368 billion rubles for the work on the project until Nov. 25, 2015, enabling first satellite of the constellation to lift off in 2016 or 2017. (Other sources still listed the first launch in 2015.) In the first year of development, Roskosmos promised 1.13 billion rubles for the project.
NPO Lavochkin planned to use its Elektro weather-forecasting satellite as a basis for the Arktika spacecraft. The company's highly successful Navigator platform, which was flight-proven during the Elektro-L mission, would be used as a standard service module for Arktika, providing three-axis attitude control and other flight-control functions during the mission. Each satellite was promised to have a life span of at least five years.
In 2012, Moscow-based Space Research Institute, IKI, reported that it has been developing a FM-VE magnetometer for the Arktika-M satellite. According to IKI it was scheduled for launch in 2014 or 2015. The instrument would be used to measure magnetic field. (612)
Initially planned to fly as early as 2013, the first Arktika-M satellite reached the launch pad in February 2021.
Composition of the Arktika constellation:
Proposed follow-on Arktika satellites:
2021: A Soyuz-2.1b rocket to launch the 2,100-kilogram Arktika-M No. 2 remote-sensing satellite. Th launch was originally promised in 2016. In 2015, it was postponed from 2018 to 2019. By 2018, the mission was postponed to 2021 and by 2021, the launch slipped to 2023.
As of 2010, the launch of Arktika-M No. 4 was promised in 2019. (411) In 2015, the launch postponed until 2021.
Postponed from 2016: A Soyuz-2.1b rocket to launch the Arktika-R No. 1 satellite into the polar orbit for radar observations of the polar areas. Originally a pair of Arktika-R satellites was planned for launch in 2014, by the end of 2010, the introduction of the system slipped to 2015. (442) By 2012, the second Arktika-R satellite was postponed to 2016.
Postponed from 2016: A Soyuz-2.1b rocket to launch the Arktika-R No. 2 satellite into the polar orbit for radar observations of the polar areas.
Chronology of the Arktika project:
2007 Dec. 19: The Arktika project is discussed at the governmental level during a meeting of the federal Sea Collegium.
2008 Jan. 22: The Arktika project is reviewed by the Scientific and Technical Council of the Military and Industrial Commission.
2008 Feb. 19: Roskosmos and Rosgidromet representatives discuss cooperation on the Arktika project.
2008 April 24: The Russian government cabinet considers the Arktika project.
2008 Sept. 18: The Russian government doctrine in the Arctic endorses the Arktika project.
2009 April 13: The Activities Plan No. VP-P16-320s of the Russian State Policy Until 2020 endorses the Arktika project. (668)
2012: Roskosmos awards a contract for the development of Arktika satellites to NPO Lavochkin.
The Arktika satellite would be based on the Elektro-L weather-forecasting platform. Credit: Roskosmos
Arktika-R satellite. Credit: NPO Lavochkin
The first Arktika-M satellite during final assembly at NPO Lavochkin circa 2020. Click to enlarge. Credit: Roskosmos
Soyuz-2-1b with Arktika-M1 satellite lifts off on Feb. 28, 2021. Click to enlarge. Credit: Roskosmos