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History

History of the Soyuz complex in Kourou


Click red arrow above to switch between exterior and interior view of the launch complex.
Facilities
1 Launch pad foundation: a concrete structure housing the launch preparation and fueling hardware.
2 Four launch support arms
3 Movable service cabin enabling access to the lower part of the rocket, during the launch preparation
4 Umbilical masts for loading propellants, electrical connections and ventilation
5 Flame trench designed to deflect the exhaust gas during the launch, thus reducing vibration loads on the rocket
6 Lightning safety towers
7 Light masts
8 Emergency evacuation tunnels
9 Personnel protection bunker
10 Fueling control bunker
11 Hydrogen peroxide draining and evaporation basin
12 Mobile service tower
13 Railway
Communications and networks
14 Liquid nitrogen and oxygen supply lines
15 Kerosene supply line
16 Hydrogen peroxide supply line
17 Gas supply lines: nitrogen purge, launcher ventilation, exhaust, fire protection
18 Air conditioning
19 Electric cables
20 Command and control lines
Rocket components
21 Strap-on boosters of the first stage
22 Core (second) stage
23 Third stage
24 Payload fairing (also covering the Fregat fourth stage)

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The Soyuz launch complex in Kourou was built for as many as 50 launches of the Soyuz rockets over a 15-year period, with three-four missions annually, before the first refurbishment of the facility would be required. The launch facility is located some 12-13 kilometers northwest of the Ariane launch complex in Kourou. The closest residential town -- Sinnamary -- lies 18 kilometers northwest from the Soyuz pad and the main residential area of the Guiana space center -- Kourou -- is 27 kilometers away in opposite direction.


Cost

A price tag of the construction was expected to be 344 million Euro, with the European Space Agency, ESA, contributing 203 million Euro, Arianespace 121 million Euro and Europe adding another 20 million Euro. The Russian contractors would be paid 121-130 million Euro for manufacturing and installing launch equipment. European companies took responsibility for the development overall infrastructure of the complex. The cost of the project later increased significantly, with France bearing 62 percent of expenses. Still, proponents of the project said that it was cheaper than the development of the a whole new family of launch vehicles with similar capabilities.

Technical features

The launch complex for the Soyuz rockets in Kourou, known as ELS, features considerable differences from its original facilities in Baikonur and Plesetsk. Many potential commercial payloads for Soyuz demand vertical integration with the rocket, unlike Russian spacecraft which can be connected to the Soyuz in horizontal position. As a result, engineers decided to install payload module onto the rocket after it was rolled out and erected into vertical position on the launch pad.

Movable gantry

To provide a climate-controlled environment for the integration of payloads with the rocket in the midst of a tropical jungle, a movable service tower was introduced. No such structures ever existed in Baikonur or Plesetsk. The design of the tower could enable its further extension in the future, including accommodations for crew access into the manned spacecraft.

Total height of the gantry reached 52 meters to the top of its curved roof, while its internal movable work platforms provided access to the Soyuz launcher at various levels up to a height of 36 meters. The gantry was designed as a lightweight structure for its size, with a total weight - including its structural framework, work platforms and corrugated external panels - of approximately 800 metric tons. Upon the completion of the Soyuz rocket assembly, the tower would be rolled away 80 meters from the launch pad. Gantry's construction was managed by the French CNES space agency (which oversees operations and infrastructure at the Spaceport), and included Rheinmetall Italy, along with the KBOM General Machine Building Design Bureau and MIR - two of the Russian companies involved in developing the new Soyuz launch site.

In designing the complex, the developers also left the option for the future addition of liquid hydrogen fuel storage, which would enable launches of a new generation of Soyuz rockets powered by cryogenic engines.

MIK

In addition to the launch pad, the Soyuz complex in Guiana also included a processing building (MIK), for horizontal assembly of the rocket, located 700 meters from the pad. The building is equipped with two traveling cranes for handling launcher segments, along with a rail system for the movement and integration of the stages.

Fregat fueling facility

On Dec. 6, 2013, Arianespace announced that it had started the construction of a dedicated facility -- Nouveau Bâtiment de Remplissage, NBR, for the fueling of the Fregat upper stage in Kourou. At the time, it was to be open for business in the first half of 2015. At the time, the new facility was scheduled to open for business in the first half of 2015 as part of the Soyuz launch complex in Kourou.

The new building was to free existing facilities dedicated to Fregat fueling for the processing of payloads slated to be launched on all three vehicles based in Kourou -- Ariane-5, Soyuz and Vega, and thus, enable more launches from the center.

Launch pad

The Soyuz launch zone is dominated by its multi-level launch pad and a massive 149-meter wide by 123-meter long flame duct excavated into layers of soil and granite - making it one of the largest civil construction programs in French Guiana.

Configured after the launch sites at Baikonur and Plesetsk Cosmodrome, the Spaceport's Soyuz launch zone ensures the same acoustic and environmental conditions as experienced during more than 1,700 liftoffs performed from the facilities in Kazakhstan and Russia.

The Spaceport's launch pad is 63.5 meters long, 45.3 meters wide and 16 meters deep. This five-level reinforced concrete structure houses mission equipment, and the top two levels have 15-meter wide openings for the launch table and the erected Soyuz vehicle. Its upper area accommodates the launch pad infrastructure, including service tower, fueling booms and erector.

Where the Spaceport's installation differs from Soyuz Cosmodrome launch sites is the use of an eight-level, mobile launch service tower. This 53-meter tall, 24-meter wide structure is rolled from its parked position onto the launch pad, providing a controlled working environment for the vertical integration of Soyuz' upper composite - consisting of the mission payload, Fregat upper stage and payload fairing.

Launch control center

Situated behind the assembly building is a rear zone area which comprises the Soyuz launch site's support facilities – including air conditioning and power systems, offices, telecommunications infrastructure and the launch control center, located one kilometer from the launch pad. This reinforced structure is the only building in the Soyuz launch zone that is occupied during final countdown and liftoff. This three-story facility houses the equipment, consoles and offices for the mission control team.

Upgrades for manned missions

Upgrade for manned missions is also possible, however it would require taking the launch pad out of service for a certain period of time. (218) During the meeting of the International Space Station partners on March 2, 2006, the head of the European Space Agency, ESA, denied the existence of any plans to launch manned missions on the Soyuz-ST from Kourou, however he added "never say never."

The processing sequence

Launcher stages are delivered to the assembly building via a rear receiving dock, and vehicle assembly is performed inside the integration building's air conditioned main bay. The launcher's assembly is handled horizontally, following the same proven procedures used for Soyuz vehicles at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan and Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia.

Completed Soyuz vehicles depart the building on a transporter/erector rail car, which is rolled out to the launch pad for erection, payload integration, final checkout and launch.


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APPENDIX

Soyuz launch facility dimensions:

-
MIK assembly building
Launch pad
Length
92.0 meters
63.5 meters
Width
41.0 meters
45.3 meters
Height
22.0 meters
Depth: 16.0 meters

 

Soyuz-ST payload capabilities from Kourou:

Orbit type
As of 2007
Soyuz ST-A (as of 2010)
Soyuz ST-B (as of 2010)
Geostationary transfer orbit, GTO:
up to 2,720 kilograms
2,810 kilograms
3,250 kilograms
Geostationary orbit, GSO:
up to 1,360 kilograms
?
?
Sun-synchronous orbit, SSO (820 kilometers):
up to 4,350 kilograms
4,230 kilograms
4,900 kilograms

 

Hardware developed by TsKB TM for the Soyuz launch pad in Koruou:

Component
Official Russian designation
Transport-erector mechanism (TUA) platform
PlP19-4
Hydrogen peroxide fueling system
373TP41
Kerosene fueling system
373TP11
Container
PR-79-4
Container
81KS.9601-0

 

Page author: Anatoly Zak; Last update: December 6, 2013

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IMAGE ARCHIVE

General layout of the Soyuz launch complex in Kourou, as presented at the Paris Air Show in Le Bourget in June 2005. Click to enlarge: 400 by 300 pixels / 44K Copyright © 2005 Anatoly Zak


MBO

A scale model demonstrating internal layout of the Mobile Service Tower, MBO, of the Soyuz launch pad in Kourou. Click to enlarge. Copyright © 2009 Anatoly Zak


Soyuz MIK

The assembly and testing building for the Soyuz rocket under construction in French Guiana in March 2008. Click to enlarge. Copyright © 2008 Anatoly Zak


CDL

Resembling an entrance into a nuclear fallout shelter, the access door to the launch control center is protected by a concrete ramp facing the launch pad. Click to enlarge. Copyright © 2008 Anatoly Zak


cables

A special enclosure houses miles of cables running from the launch pad to the support facilities. Click to enlarge. Copyright © 2008 Anatoly Zak


Kourou

The Soyuz rocket stands on its brand-new equatorial launch pad in French Guiana on May 4, 2011. Credit: ESA / S. Corvaja


Galileo

A fully assembled Soyuz rocket slated to make the first flight from a brand-new launch pad in Kourou, French Guiana, undergoes final preparation at the center's integration building. Credit: Arianespace


Kourou

Workers at Kourou launch site take pictures of each other as the first Soyuz rocket to fly from the equatorial site is being raised in position on its brand-new launch pad. Credit: Arianespace