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New promise for the Venera-D project

In 2020 and early 2021, in the wake of a high-profile but still-debated discovery by US and British scientists of the chemical phosphine, that could be associated with biological activities in the atmosphere of Venus, Roskosmos officials resumed public promises to launch the Venera-D project and to follow-on with more Russian missions to Venus.


Venera-D

General architecture of the Venera-D spacecraft as of 2020. Credit: NPO Lavochkin


According to a strategy presented by NPO Lavochkin in the Fall of 2020, three Russian missions were proposed:

Launch date
Mission
Mission details
2029 November
Venera-D
Studies of the surface, atmosphere and internal composition in coordination with US-Russian working group, JSDT.
2031 June
Expedition-2(?)
The repeat of Venera-D with a possible upgrades based on the Venera-D experience. The release of atmospheric probes from the lander to obtain aerosol profile all the way to the surface.
2034 June
Expedition-3 (?)
Delivery atmospheric samples, aerosols and, possibly, soil from Venus.

Moreover, NPO Lavochkin's presentation said that the feasibility of a "fast-reaction" extra mission to Venus, specifically for testing the phosphine theory, had been under consideration! Needless to say, such a schedule looked beyond ambitious to anybody involved in the Venera-D project.

Indeed, on December 16, 2020, the Space Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences issued official decision No. 10310-21, stressing the importance of upcoming flights to Venus for testing the phosphine theory. However, the document pointed at the Indian Venus Orbiter Mission, with a confirmed launch date in 2024, as the first candidate for such an experiment, listing the Venera-D mission second and not even projecting its launch date.

Nevertheless, on February 26, 2021, Head of Roskosmos Dmitry Rogozin announced that the Venera-D spacecraft would be built.

In March 2021, the official TASS news agency quoted Head of Space Research Institute, IKI, Lev Zeleny as promising a multi-phase Venus exploration program that had been endorsed at a recent meeting of the leadership at Roskosmos and the Russian Academy of Sciences, RAN. According to Zeleny, the exact scope of the Russian Venus exploration program would be determined by the newly initiated two-year-long design of the Venera-D spacecraft, which could fly as early as 2029, opening a new era in the Russian exploration of the planet.

Zeleny apparently referred to the start of the preliminary design of the Venera-D spacecraft, which is essentially an early paper phase in the spacecraft development requiring minimum expenses and little future obligations on the part of Roskosmos. In the past two decades, numerous innovative projects within the Russian space industry went through the preliminary design phase only to stall indefinitely at the point where their funding had to ramp up dramatically in order to transition to metal. Because by 2020 Venera-D had all but lost its status of a joint US-Russian project, Roskosmos would no longer be bound by international agreements to fund the effort and its contractors would no longer be able to benefit from the foreign experience in managing such a complex undertaking or have an easy access to foreign components.

The challenge facing Venera-D developers is underscored by the fact that in the past two decades, Russian scientists had no opportunity to fly their instruments to other planets without American or European spacecraft. The last Russian-led planetary mission, aiming at Phobos, failed hours after launch in 2011 due to profound mismanagement and inadequate avionics. In the past several years, the Russian space industry worked on improving quality control, reducing its dependence on imports and replacing the Soviet-era cadre and facilities, however, it is unclear whether these measures would be enough to overcome the increasing isolation of the country, ongoing economic challenges and management problems.

Perhaps, the 2029 launch date reflected the expected funding and technical challenges before the Venera-D project.

 

Mass specifications of the Venera-D spacecraft as of October 2020:

Spacecraft
4,800 kilograms
Orbital Module, OM
2,100 kilograms
Atmospheric Module, AM
600 kilograms
Descent Module, SA
2,100 kilograms

 

Mass specifications of the Venera-D's Descent Module as of October 2020:

Spacecraft
2,100 kilograms
Lander Module, PM, (including reserve)
800 kilograms
Technical Atmospheric Module, TAM, (including reserve)
210 kilograms
Onboard Cable Network, BKS
7 kilograms
Parachute system
150 kilograms
Structure
320 kilograms
Control unit
1 kilogram
Power source of the lander, KhIT DM
2 kilograms
Thermal control system of the lander, SOTR DM
330 kilograms
  • Thermal protection shielding, TZP
270 kilograms
  • Thermal protection layers, EVTI
30 kilograms
  • Heaters
3 kilograms
Reserve
307 kilograms

 

Mass specifications of the Venera-D's Lander Module as of October 2020:

Spacecraft (total)
800 kilograms
Onboard Radio Complex, BRK
20 kilograms
TSP
5 kilograms
Science payload, KNA
85 kilograms
Onboard Cable Network, BKS
35 kilograms
Control Unit, BU
1 kilograms
Structure
230 kilograms
Thermal control system of the lander, SOTR PM
110 kilograms
  • External covering
40 kilograms
  • Cooling generator
40 kilograms
  • Internal thermal insulation
30 kilograms
Power source, KhIT, 1,500 watts per hour*
15 kilograms
LLISSE
60 kilograms
Reserve
367 kilogrmas

The spacecraft is estimate to require 300 watts with peaks at 540 watts.

 

 

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Written by Anatoly Zak; last update: March 5, 2021

Page editor: Alain Chabot; Last update: March 5, 2021

All rights reserved.

insider content

 

sa

Architecture of the Descent Module for the Venera-D mission as envisioned in 2020. Credit: NPO Lavochkin


dimensions

lander

A depiction of the lander vehicle for the Venera-D mission circa 2020. Credit: NPO Lavochkin


approach

A Venus approach trajectory of the Venera-D mission as envisioned in 2020. Credit: NPO Lavochkin


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