Author thanks Igor Puchkov and Igor Postnikov at NPO Mashinostroenia, in Reutov, Russia, and Alain Chabot from Université Sainte-Anne in Church Point, Nova Scotia, Canada, for their help in preparing this section.
Almaz space station technical overview
As proposed in 1964, the Almaz space station, also designated 11F71 or 11F71B, was designed to have a rotating crew of three people and an operational life of 1-2 years. The station was to be equipped with the Agat optical camera. The film could be developed onboard the station. Every station was to be equipped with a single small capsule, designated 11F74, allowing the quick return to Earth of surveillance film and other payloads with a total mass of up to 100 kilograms.
The habitable module of the station was devided into following main areas:
The propulsion section and solar panels would be also attached at the tail of the station. The Almaz was to be equipped with two RD-0225 (11D24) orbital maneuvering engines and 32 small attitude control thrusters.
For high-accuracy attitude control, the station would be also equipped with gyrodines developed at VNIIEM and under supervision of Nikolai Sheremetievski.
The surveillance equipment onboard Almaz was controlled by the Argon-16 onboard computer developed at VNITsVT institute. (78)
Almaz space station tech specs: (49)
RD-0225 tech specs (145):
An artist rendering of the Almaz space station in "full" configuration docked with two TKS spacecraft. Credit: NPO Mash
An artist rendering of the initial version of the Almaz space station docked with Soyuz spacecraft. Credit: NPO Mash
The Almaz station consisted of three main sections: tail section (left), a "main diameter" section housing telescopes, and "small" diameter section (far right), containing living quarters. Copyright © 2002 by Anatoly Zak
The last manned Almaz station (OPS No. 104), equipped with a second docking port in the front section, was scheduled for launch in 1978, before the project was canceled. Copyright © 2002 by Anatoly Zak
A demonstration version of a flight-ready KSI reentry capsule. Copyright © 2002 by Anatoly Zak
The KSI reentry capsule configured for flight (left); a capsule minus its propulsion unit (center) and a heat shield protecting the capsule during the reentry (right). Copyright © 2002 by Anatoly Zak
Testing of the docking between the Almaz station and the TKS spacecraft. Credit: NPO Mash
The RD-0225 main engine (11D24) developed for the Almaz station. Credit: KBKhA