Origins of the Soviet rocket and space industry

Russian space agency, Roskosmos

Russian space industry in the first decade of the 21st century

Russian space industry during the 2010s


KB Arsenal, St. Petersburg, (RORSAT, ICBM development and production)

RKK Energia (Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia) Town of Korolev. (R-7 rocket and its derivatives; Salyut, Mir, Zvezda SM, Soyuz, Progress spacecraft)

GKNPTs Khrunichev, Moscow, (Proton, Rockot launchers, TKS spacecraft and its derivatives, UR-200, UR-100 ICBMs)

TsNII Kometa, Moscow, (ASAT, early-warning system, RORSAT satellite development)

NPO Lavochkin, Moscow (Reconnaissance and early-warning satellites, upper stages, planetary probes, science satellites)

NPO Mashinostroenia, Reutov, Moscow Region, (ICBM, cruise-missile development, IS ASAT, TKS spacecraft, Almaz station)

KB Makeev, Miass, Chelyabinsk Region, (Submarine-launched missile development)

NPO Molniya, Moscow, (Reusable spacecraft development: Spiral, Buran)

MIT, Moscow Institute Teplotekhniki, Moscow, (Mobile solid-propellant ICBMs, Topol, Topol-M, Start-1 launcher)

NIIEM, Istra, Moscow Region, (Meteor meteorological satellite development)

NPO PM, (ISS Reshetnev) Zheleznogorsk, aka Krasnoyarsk 26 (Communications, navigation satellite development)

PO Polyot, Omsk (Cosmos launcher, Uragan, Globus spacecraft production) Absorbed by Khrunichev enterprise in 2007 to produce, elements of the Proton rocket, Angara's booster stages -- URM-1, the Briz-KM upper stage and Angara-1.2.)

TsSKB Progress, Samara, formerly Kuibushev, (Reconnaissance satellite development; Energia, R-7-based launch vehicle production)

NPP VNIIEM, Moscow (Remote-sensing satellite development)

KB Yuzhnoe, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine, (Zenit, Tsyklon, Dnepr launchers, R-16, UR-MR-100, R-36, R-36M ICBM)


NPO Altai, Biysk, (formerly NII-9, ANIIKhT) (Solid-propellant systems for Molniya comsats, LK lander, Mars and Venera soil sampler.

Baranov Motorbuilding Enterprise, Omsk, (Rocket engine production)

NPO Energomash, Moscow, (Rocket engine development)

OKB Fakel, Kaliningrad (Development of electric propulsion systems)

NPO Iskra, Perm, (Solid-propellant engine development)

KBKhA, (KB Khimavtomatiki) Voronezh, (Rocket engine development)

KB Khimmash, Korolev (Rocket engine development)

GP Keldysh Research Center, Moscow, (Research in rocket propulsion and power supply systems)

OAO SNTK Kuznetsov, Samara, (Rocket engine development: NK-9, -15, -31, -33, -39, -43)

OAO Lyulka-Saturn, Moscow (Rocket engine development: D-57, pump-driving power source for the Buran orbiter)

OAO Metallist, Samara, (Production of components for rocket engines)

OAO Motorostroitel, Samara, (Rocket engine production, RD-107, -108, -107A, 108A, NK-33, -43)

NIIMash, Nizhniya Salda, Yekaterinburg (formerly Sverdlovsk) Region (Liquid-fuel engine testing and development)

NITs RKP formerly NIIKhimmash, Sergiev Posad (formerly Zagorsk) (Rocket engine testing)

Perm PO Motorostroitel, Perm, (Production of rocket engines)

OAO ANTK Soyuz, Moscow, (Development of jet and rocket engines for cruise missiles, nuclear power sources)

FTsDT Soyuz, (Solid-rocket propulsion, emergency escape system development)

OAO Turaev MKB Soyuz, Lytkarino, Moscow Region, (Rocket and ramjet engine development)

GP Tushino MKB Soyuz, Moscow, (R210D/E-300 liquid-propellant thrusters for spacecraft)

Krasniy Oktaybr Mashine-building Enterprise, St Petersburg, (Rocket engine production)

GPO Zlatoust Machine-Building Plant, ZMZ, Zlatoust, (Rocket engine components such as turbine wheels)


KPTsKB Arsenal, Kiev, Ukraine (guidance and navigation systems)

OAO Aveks (formerly OKB-12) (avionics, flight control systems for Buran's hydrailics and landing gear)

NPO Avtomatiki, Ekaterinburg, (flight control systems)

SKTB Biophyspribor, St Petersburg (Medical equipment for space flight)

NPP Elar, (light sensors for star trackers)

NPO Elas, Zelenograd, (avionics and communicatios gear for spacecraft)

NPP Geophysika, Moscow (Optics and electronics)

TsKB Geophysika, Krasnoyarsk (sensors, control systems)

NII Germes, Zlatoust, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia

OKB Gorizont, Moscow, (Energy and electrical systems)

NPO Khartron, Kharkov, Ukraine, (flight control systems)

Krasmashzavod, Krasnoyarsk-26 (Serial production of DM upper stage, initially bodies and later engines for Kosmos launcher, R-29 SLBM)

NPP Kvant, (formerly VNIIT) Moscow, (Power supply systems)

Mars Moscow Experimental Design Bureau (Astro-navigation systems for space applications including Buran, ISS)

Mashinostroitel Perm Plant, (ICBM production)

NII PM, Moscow, (Gyroscope development)

NIIPP, Institute of Precision Instrument Engineering, Moscow (Laser systems for spacecraft)

NII PP i SPT, Moscow, (Space food development and production)

NIIT, Institute of Television, St Petersburg, (TV and photography systems for spacecraft)

NPO AP named after Pilugin, Moscow, (Flight control systems, gyroscopic devices, sensors)

KB Nudelman (KB TM), (anti-missile and anti-satellite defense, automatic guns for orbital stations)

NPTs Opteks, Zelenograd, (optical systems for spy satellites)

NII Parashutostroenia, Moscow, (Parachutes for reentry capsules and retrievable devices)

NPTs Polyus, Tomsk, onboard and ground electric systems and gyroscopes for satellite systems built at ISS Reshetnev (formerly NPO PM)

SOKB KT, Zhukovskiy (Flight control systems)

ONPP Tekhnologia, Obninsk, (composite materials and light structures for space technology)

TsNII SM, Khotkovo, Moscow Region (Structural components, composite structures and solid-propellant casings for rocketry)

Vavilov Institute, St Petersburg (Optics, laser, infrared systems)

Votkinsk Plant, Votkinsk, Udmurt Republic, (ICBM and SLBM production)

NPP Zvezda, Tomilino, Moscow Region, (Ejection seats, life-support systems, space suit development)

Zvezda Enterprise, Solnechniy, Gorodomlya Island, Tver Region, (Gyroscopes; Location of the German rocket team in the USSR in 1946-1953)


KB Armatura, Kovrov, Vladimir Region, (hydraulic and pneumatic systems for launch equipment)

TsKB TM, Moscow (Since 2012 Corporation for Strategic control sites) (Launch Equipment, Fortified launch control sites for ICBMs)

KBOM, Moscow (Developer of launch complexes for launch vehicles, ICBM and anti-missile systems)

KBTM, Moscow (Developer of launch complexes for launch vehicles, ICBM and SLBM systems)

KB TKhM, Moscow (Propellant loading systems for launch complexes)

KBSM, St Petersburg (Ground support equipment for launch complexes, antennas)

NPF Kosmotrans, St Petersburg (Transportation, railway services for launch sites)

OKB MEI, (Developer of avionics, ground control equipment)

KB Motor, Moscow (Transport systems for launch complexes)

Obukhov Plant, St Petersburg, (Antennas and hardware for ground-processing and space monitoring systems)

OKB Vympel, (Pre-launch processing of launch vehicles)


FPSU, Federal Search and Rescue Agency (Search and rescue operations)

TsPK, Zvezdny Gorodok (a.k.a. Star City, Starry Town), Moscow region (Cosmonaut training)

IKI RAN, Moscow, (Space science research)

IMBP, Moscow (Medical, life-sciences and biological research in space flight)

IRE RAN, Moscow (Radio-electronics research)

IZMIRAN, Troitsk, Moscow Region, (Ionosphere and magnetic field research)

LII Gromova, Zhukovskiy, Moscow Region (Aerospace R&D)

NIIYaF MGU, Moscow, (Nuclear physics and space rays research)

NITs Planeta, Moscow, (Space monitoring applications)

Gostsentr Priroda (Development and applications of remote-sensing data and technologies)

RIRV, St Petersburg (Navigation, time-synchronization research)

TsNII RTK, St Petersburg (Robotics technologies)

TsAGI, Zhukovskiy, Moscow Region (Aerospace R&D)

TsNIIMash, Korolev, Moscow Region (Fundamental R&D and certification in rocketry and spacecraft, flight control, TsUP operations)

Vernadsky GEOKhI RAN, Moscow, (Geological chemistry, planetology)

Compiled by Anatoly Zak

Last update: April 28, 2020