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Soyuz TMA-M variant

The introduction of the Soyuz TMA-M spacecraft (industrial designation - 11F732A47) became the latest step in a series of gradual upgrades to Russia's legendary crew transport. Originally designated as Series 700, Soyuz TMA-M was also informally known as "digital Soyuz," -- a reference to an advanced flight control computer introduced with that variant. Most of the new components developed for TMA-M were also expected to migrate to the new-generation crew vehicle. After some delays, the first Soyuz TMA-M made it to the launch pad in October 2010.

Soyuz TMA-M

New systems onboard Soyuz TMA-M. Red indicates new hardware within the Motion Control and Navigation System, SUDN; green - Onboard Measurement System, SBI; and blue - Thermal Control System, SOTR, (INSIDER CONTENT). Credit: Roskosmos / RKK Energia

Upgrade package

The goal of the upgrades which led to Soyuz TMA-M was the replacement of outdated equipment, some of which was no longer in production, with more advanced systems, employing modern electronics and software. According to original plans, these modifications were to be more extensive, but in the end, the most radical and expensive proposals had to be postponed to a later date.

Upgrades in the Soyuz TMA-M (Soyuz-700 series) affected the following systems:

  • The Motion Control and Navigation System, SUDN, received five new instruments, instead of six onboard Soyuz TMA;
  • The Onboard Measurement System, SBI, was equipped with 14 new instruments instead of 30 on Soyuz TMA;
  • The Thermal Control System, SOTR, (INSIDER CONTENT) was modified to accommodate new systems.

A total of 36 old instruments were replaced with 19 new systems. The total mass savings resulting from these upgrades reached 70 kilograms. In addition, assembly of the spacecraft on the ground was also simplified. According to Aleksandr Kaleri, who led the first mission of the Soyuz TMA-M spacecraft, the computer system onboard the spacecraft was built according the so-called "open architecture," implying its easy expansion.

These primary upgrades required a number of changes in associated systems, support hardware and flight control procedures. Since the new instruments required thermal conditioning, a number of changes was made in the thermal control system, SOTR:

  • Three new thermal batteries were installed in the instrument compartment to provide liquid thermal conditioning;
  • The strap-on radiator of the thermal system was upgraded to enable plugging thermal batteries for new instruments;
  • A new high-efficiency electric pump was installed;
  • A liquid heat exchanger was replaced to improve thermal conditioning of new instruments on the launch pad;

Other changes

The SUDN's avionics unit, which manages the attitude control and rendezvous thrusters has been upgraded to make it compatible with the new systems. Modified software was installed in the computers of the descent module, SA. Within the onboard flight control complex, SUBK, the command processing unit was also changed. Associated power supply mechanisms and their protection systems have been upgraded for compatibility with the new systems. Also, the cosmonaut flight control console, in the descent module, SA, was upgraded with new software to work with the new systems. Finally, backup multiplexer channels were introduced to exchange information between computers onboard the Soyuz and those on the Russian segment of the International Space Station, ISS.

On the structural side, the truss holding the ship's instrument compartment, PO, would now be made out of aluminum rather than magnesium alloy, which simplified the manufacturing of the spacecraft.


The 700th series upgrade program was delayed several times, in part due to the lack of a completed integrated test facility, KS, which could be employed to thoroughly check a fully assembled vehicle on the ground at RKK Energia's test center in Korolev, near Moscow. Instead, RKK Energia resorted to testing individual components intended for Soyuz TMA-M, during missions of Progress cargo ships, before certifying the new hardware for the use on manned vehicles. The method reportedly delayed the introduction of Soyuz TMA-M by around a year. The first mission in the series, designated Soyuz TMA-01M, lifted off on Oct. 8, 2010. According to previous ISS mission schedules, the Soyuz TMA-01M was planned to be launched on Nov. 16, 2009 and Sept. 30, 2010.

As many as four missions of Soyuz TMA-M and Soyuz TMA spacecraft were also slated for testing the latest upgrades, before the TMA-M version would be declared operational. The test flight program called for trying out some of the emergency flight modes onboard Soyuz TMA-M, including using manual control for such tasks as maintaining attitude of the spacecraft, flying around the ISS and conducting thruster firings for orbit correction.

What in the name?

Originally, the round of upgrades, which led to Soyuz TMA-M development, was known as Soyuz-700 series. The first vehicle of this type was expected to be called Soyuz TMA-01M, in a fashion similar to the latest generation of Progress vehicles. However by the end of July 2010, the spacecraft series was re-christened Soyuz TMA-M. In case this was not confusing enough, subsequent official reports on the preparation of the first spacecraft in the series continued calling the vehicle Soyuz TMA-01M.

Further upgrades

Some upgrade plans, which were left to the next round of modifications apparently included the move of the main flight control computer, from the Instrument and Aggregate Compartment, PAO, to the Descent Module, SA. This change would allow to eliminate the KS0 20M computer in the descent module, which is dedicated to the reentry and landing of the crew capsule after the separation from the PAO module. With the move into the crew module, the same computer would support the entire mission from launch to touchdown. However this proposal had not been funded, even though as of beginning of 2009, there was still hope that the move would be implemented no later than 2011 or 2012. The future plans for Soyuz upgrades also aimed for a complete overhaul of the ship's power supply system, starting with solar panels and all the way to the onboard cable network, BKS. As of 2010, new more effective solar panels for Soyuz were expected to become available within a year.

To the Moon: still a possibility

All the changes to Soyuz introduced in 2010 and in the following years could be extended even further, given available funding and the political will. Among technically feasible upgrades, which were informally discussed on the web forum of the Novosti Kosmonavtiki magazine were more capable parachutes made of new materials; the removal of a pressurized instrument compartment from the service module, PAO, which would enable the increase of the ship's propellant load up to three tons; an addition of a new communication gear for lunar missions; and the reinforcement of the crew capsule's heat shield to enable the atmospheric reentry with a high velocity of lunar mission. These modifications could "close the circle" of the Soyuz development history, bringing the veteran spacecraft back to its original purpose, for which it was conceived in the 1960s. The plan could be a backup option for any serious obstacles on the way of the Russian development of the new-generation manned vehicle.

Ventilation aboard Soyuz-TMA-M (INSIDER CONTENT)

One critical sub-system providing thermal control inside the three pressurized compartments of the Soyuz crew vehicle is ventilation hardware. It is designed to operate not only in space, but also during pre-launch processing of the spacecraft, on the launch pad and after the completion of the flight on land or at sea.


Missions of the Soyuz TMA-M series:

  • Soyuz TMA-01M (The 25/26th long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-20 (The 26/27th long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-21 (The 27/28th long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-02M (The 27/28th long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-22 (The 29/30th long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-03M (The 30/31st long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-04M (The 31/32nd long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-05M (The 32/33rd long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-06M (The 33/34th long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-07M (The 34/35th long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-08M (The 35/36th long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-09M (The 36/37th long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-10M (The 37/38th long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-11M (The 38/39th long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-12M (The 39/40th long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-13M (The 40/41th long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-14M (The 41/42nd long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-15M (The 42/43rd long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-16M (The 43rd long-duration expedition to the ISS, the "Year in Space" mission)
  • Soyuz TMA-17M (The 44/45th long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-18M (The 45/46th long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-19M (The 46/47th long-duration expedition to the ISS)
  • Soyuz TMA-20M (The 47/48th long-duration expedition to the ISS)



Characteristics of the Soyuz TMA central flight control computer:

Total mass including the interface unit
approx. 26 kilograms
Power consumption
80 Watts
Calculation speed
8 million operations per second
Random access memory, RAM, volume
2,000 KBt
Operational life span
35,000 hours


The Soyuz TMA and TMA-M comparison:

Soyuz TMA
Soyuz TMA-M
Motion and navigation system, SUDN
Number of instruments
Total mass
approx. 101 kilograms
approx. 42 kilograms
System power consumption
402 Watts
105 Watts
Onboard measurement system, SBI
Number of instruments
Total mass
approx. 70 kilograms
approx. 28 kilograms
Power consumption in direct telemetry transmission mode
115 Watts
85 Watts
Power consumption in telemetry recording mode
84 Watts
29 Watts
Power consumption in telemetry playback mode
140 Watts
85 Watts

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This page is maintained by Anatoly Zak; Last update: March 2, 2023

Page editor: Alain Chabot; Last edit: April 30, 2011

All rights reserved


insider content


The Soyuz FG rocket with Soyuz TMA-M spacecraft shortly after rollout to the launch pad in Baikonur on Oct. 5, 2010. Credit: RKK Energia


Soyuz TMA-M spacecraft in orbit. Credit: NASA


Samantha Cristoforetti inside the descent module of the Soyuz TMA-15M spacecraft during a familiarization training in Baikonur on Nov. 12, 2014. Click to enlarge. Credit: RKK Energia